CellCODE : a robust latent variable approach to differential expression analysis for heterogeneous cell populations. MOTIVATION: Identifying alterations in gene expression associated with different clinical states is important for the study of human biology. However, clinical samples used in gene expression studies are often derived from heterogeneous mixtures with variable cell-type composition, complicating statistical analysis. Considerable effort has been devoted to modeling sample heterogeneity, and presently, there are many methods that can estimate cell proportions or pure cell-type expression from mixture data. However, there is no method that comprehensively addresses mixture analysis in the context of differential expression without relying on additional proportion information, which can be inaccurate and is frequently unavailable